22 April, 2009

International Relations A Christian Perspective

nThe International State System:
Why Nations? Why States?
nAsk the Political Philosophers
State of Nature -- The Realist View
n“Political Community” begins by acquiring and establishing dominion over a particular part of the world

nThe first act of politics is to secure the safety, existence and self-sufficiency of the community

nThis reality is fully appreciated by most political thinkers: “laying its foundation on such principles
and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their safety and
happiness.” - Declaration of Independence
nPlato, Laws, “for everyone there always exists by nature an undeclared war among all states.”

nMachiavelli, Prince, “a prince should have no other object, nor any other thought, nor take anything
else as his art but the art of war and its orders and disciplines.”

nHobbes, Leviathan, the norm for states is “having their weapons pointing, and their eyes fixed on one another.”
nAsk the Hebrew Prophets
State of Nature -- The Biblical View
nOriginal State of Nature – mankind in fellowship with God and dominion over the whole earth.
Original purpose engraved in human nature (natural rights)

nThe Corrupted State of Nature

Mankind’s rebellion and loss of dominion

Genesis 6:6 – “the wickedness of man was great in the earth….and every imagination of the

thoughts of his heart was only evil continually”

nAsk the Hebrew Prophets
State of Nature -- The Biblical View
nEarth filled with violence

Genesis 6:11 – “the earth was corrupt before God, and the earth was filled with violence”

nJudgment of the Flood and Institution of Government - Capital punishment sanctioned
to restrain violence

Genesis 9:6 – “Whoso sheds man’s blood, by man shall his blood be shed; for in the image of God

made He man.”

nTable of Nations (goyim)

Genesis 10 – 70 names…the sons of Noah: Shem, Ham and Japheth… “By these were the coasts

of the nations divided in their lands” “after their families (race), after their manner of speaking, in

their lands (space) after their nations (ethnicity).”

nAsk the Hebrew Prophets
The Dividing and Scattering of Nations

nDesire for Identity and Recognition

Genesis 11: “let us build a city and a tower….and let us make a name for ourselves, lest we be scattered.”

nConfusion of the Languages

Genesis 11 – “Behold, they are one people (am achad), and they have one language; and this is what they begin to do; and now nothing will be withheld from them, which they purpose to do.”

nBoundaries Established

Deuteronomy 32:8-9 - “When the Most High gave to the nations their inheritance, when He separated the children of men, He set the borders of the peoples according to the number of the children of Israel (or bene Elohim Sons of God)”

nThe Nations in God’s Redemptive Plan
nIsraelite Nation Called out as An Example Nation
nTo Egypt
nTo Wilderness
nTo Homeland
nTo Exile, Return, Messianic Role, Dispersion and Future Role
nAppointed Times for all Nations

Acts 17:26 – (Paul speaking) “And He made from one man every nation of mankind to live on all the face of the earth, having determined their appointed times and boundaries of their habitation, in order that they would seek God, if perhaps they might grope for Him and find Him, though He is not far from each one of us.”

nThe Nations in End Times
nHaggai 2: Strength of the Kingdoms Destroyed

Hagaii 2:21-22 – “I will shake the heavens and the earth; and I will overthrow the throne of

kingdoms, and I will destroy the strength of the kingdoms of the nations; and I will overthrow

the chariots, and those that ride in them; and the horses and their riders shall come down, every one by

the sword of his brother.”

nMessiah Judges the Nations

Romans 11:25 – “when the fullness of the nations be come in.”

Matthew 25:32 – “All the nations will be gathered before Him; and He will separate them from one

another, as the shepherd separates the sheep from the goats.”

nMessiah rules as King of Kings

Psalm 72: 11 - “Yea, all kings shall prostrate themselves before him; all nations shall serve him.”

nThe Nations in Eternity

nFinal Deception of the Nations

Revelation 20:8 – “When the thousand years are completed, Satan will be released from his

prison, and will come out to deceive the nations which are in the four corners of the earth,”

nNew Heaven and New Earth

Revelation 21:1,24 – “then I saw a new heaven and a new earth, for the old heaven and the old

earth had passed away, and the sea was no longer there…..the nations will walk by its light, and

the kings of the earth will bring their glory into it.”

nLiber Chronicalum
Hartman Schedel 1440-1514
n“Tracking Down Mitichondrial Eve”
US News & World Report, January 29,2001

nFuture Ethno-National Evolution?
Tellus Project: 2335 A.D.
nHalford J. Mackinder
Modern Political Geography
nPolitical Geography
nSir Halford Mackinder, Royal Geographic Society (1904) commented on the close of the “Columbian epoch”:
n400 yrs of discovery and relatively easy expansion
n“virtually complete political appropriation”

n“Post-Columbian” age is a closed political system…every explosion of social forces, instead of being dissipated in a surrounding circuit of unknown space and barbaric chaos, will be sharply re-echoed from the far side of the globe.”

nMackinder’s Geopolitical View

nWorld Ocean: There is “One Ocean” covering 9/12th of the globe

nWorld Island: We can now see that Europe, Asia and Africa are a joint continent – “the World Island – covering 2/12th of the globe

nHeartland: is the dominant geopolitical fact in the World Island – “the greatest natural fortress on earth.”
nThe Inner Crescent: Is the area surrounding the Heartland where most of the World’s population lives

nOuter Crescent: The rest of the land (1/12th) is composed of large and small Islands

nMackinder’s World
nMackinder’s Heartland Theory
n“Heartland” is the “Pivot” region of the world
nunpenetrated from the waterways from the seas
nthere is an open passage to the West

nAround the Heartland lie 4 marginal regions arrayed in a “Crescent”, containing 2/3rds of the world’s population:

- Pacific Monsoon

- Indian Monsoon

- The land of the 5 seas

- Europe

nMackinder’s Heartland Theory

nThis “Crescent” is partly continental, partly oceanic and functions as a vast zone of conflict between the land and sea powers

nBeyond lie the Island Nations

nMackinder’s Observations on British Empire
nSea Power was ascendant in the 19th century
nSteam power had extended the reach of navies
nTelegraph and radio had extended commercial production, control and administration of a maritime empire

nReversal of power to the land of Eurasia was possible
nRussia expanding eastward on new modes of transport
nMan-power and resources could sustain a Eurasian empire
nEast Europe was in command of the Heartland
nUnification of Germany

nBritish strategy must protect the Eurasian Crescent
nfrom Heartland conquest
nto prevent a rimland power from commanding the Heartland.
nAfter Mackinder
nCarl Ritter, German geographer, envisioned a “Divine plan for humanity”, based on regionalism and a constant flow of forms.

nFriedrich Ratzel, science of “nation-states”, influenced by evolutionary theory
nLebensraum: living space to achieve autarky ( raw materials, populations, markets, states must expand or die.
nOrganic nationalism: to every race its place, natural political boundaries, harmony of state and nation.

nAfter Mackinder
nKarl Haushofer, Nazi geographer, defined spheres of natural influence/domination.
nArchitect of “The Eastern Plan” for a Germanic people “without a space”

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